Saturday, January 3, 2015

Jacob Sommer - Carriage Maker

I'm seeing more and more family trees where there is great mixing of different Sommer's families. I wish there was an official place to register our family lines so this mixing-up wouldn't happen because I think the mixing-up is a damaging thing to all of us. Sigh. All I can do is try to share my research and perspective and hope that other serious researchers will care as much as I do about getting it right. Let's put our heads together and see if we can untangle things!

First, here's an article I just wrote with more specifics about the particular question of which Jacob Sommer descended from Freistett, Germany and lived in colonial Philadelphia - Jacob, the Judge, 1758-1827, or Jacob, the Carriage-Maker, 1749-1817?

So who's going to join me in putting together a research plan to solve this puzzle? How do we really know which Jacob Sommer lived in Moreland and was the judge, and which lived in Germantown and was the carriage-maker, and which one was from Freistett? What evidence would help us?

  • a death record or probate record for Jacob the Carriage-Maker who died supposedly in 1817. This might mention his family relationships. Note that I have already located the will for Leonard Sommer and it does not mention Jacob or any carriage business. 
  • any record but especially a death record for the Johannes Sommer who lived in Germantown. We do know that Johannes Sommer who died in 1792 was not buried in Germantown, but at the St. Michael's Zion and Lutheran Church in PHL, and that record states he had come from Freistett. It also said that he was 68 years old, so the father of Jacob the Carriage-Maker would also need to have been born in 1724. 
  • any records that might establish relationships, specifically 
    • the parental relationship for either Jacob the Carriage-Maker or Jacob the Judge. This would go a long way to differentiating the two men. 
    • the brother relationship between Georg, John, and Martin Sommer. Freistett records establish men with these names had the same parents, and passenger list for the ship Brothers in 1752 had all three of these names, and the death records in America of two men with these names refer to Freistett. It would nevertheless be good to find more solid evidence of their relationship in America. 
  • any records that might suggest relationships, for example, baptismal records for children. The sponsors are sometimes, if not often, relatives. Unfortunately, I don't see much evidence in the baptismal records (that I can find so far) for the children of Georg and Johannes that they were sponsored by other Sommer family. However, there are several cases with Martin's children where both his supposed brothers participated as sponsors. 
  • a possible immigration record for a John or Jacob Sommer other than the ship Brothers in 1752. Whoever the “other” Jacob was, we don't know where he came from or when he came to PHL, of even if he came with parents. It's curious that several family trees list the birth date of Jacob Sommer the Carriage-Maker as April 29, 1749, and when I search family search I find: 

Name: Johann Jacob Sommer
Event Date: 1750
Gender: Male
Birth Date: 29 Apr 1750
Birth Year: 1750
Birthplace:
Christening Date: 30 Apr 1750
Christening Place: Bönnigheim, Württemberg, Germany
Father's Name: Jacob Sommer
Mother's Name: Maria Catharina
System Origin: Germany-EASy GS Film Number: 1184904 Indexing Project (Batch) Number: C95430-4
Citing this Record: "Deutschland, Geburten und Taufen, 1558-1898," index, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.1.1/NLST-GB3 : accessed 3 January 2015), Johann Jacob Sommer, 30 Apr 1750; citing ; FHL microfilm 1,184,904.

Notice this birth date is off by exactly one year, which seems slightly NOT coincidental. But also notice the father's name is not Johannes. But don't we also know this wouldn't be the first time we've discovered that the information handed gets somehow garbled along the way? So if this record DOES belong to Jacob the Carriage-Maker, when did he arrive in PHL, and did he arrive alone or with his parents?

Comments are welcome!

Thursday, October 23, 2014

The Mystery of RIEß Sisters - Part 2

My Assertion:  Anna Catharina Riess, wife of Joh. Ernst Menge, and Anna Elisabeth Catharina Riess, wife of Joh. Ernst Christian Kreuter, were sisters. Both Riess women were the daughters of Joh. Clemens Riess and Anna Margareth Kleberger of Södel, Hessen, Germany.

Given this assertion, the Södel Familenbuch (page 266) is mistaken to list Anna Elisabeth Riess, wife of Joh. Ernst Christian Kreuter, as the daughter of Hans Martin Rieß. She was instead the daughter of Martin's brother, Joh. Clemens Rieß, and a sister of Anna Catharina who married Joh. Ernst Menge.

My Argument:
The first question is if indeed the two Riess women were sisters, who were the parents they had in common? For the time period in question, the only Rieß in Södel who had sons who might have been father to these girls was Johann Riess and his wife Anna Margreth. Their sons were:
  • Johannes Riess had a daughter named Anna Catharina, 1670-1671.  He did not have any daughters with the name Elisabeth.
  • Joh. Clemens Riess had daughters named 
     Anna Elisabetha 1684-1694
     Anna Catharina born in 1690, married Joh. Ernst Menge
     Catharina born in 1694
  • Hans Martin Riess had daughters named
     Anna Elisabetha, 1685-1761, married Joh. Ernst Klein
     Catharina, born 1692                                                 
     Maria Kat, 1700-1775, married Johannes Sommer

Given this information, I eliminate Johannes Rieß as the possible father of the sisters in question. That leaves Clemens and Martin, both of whom had daughters named Elisabeth and Catharina. Remember we are looking for one sister who married Menge and the other sister who married Kreuter.  

In the case of Clemens, his daughter Elisabetha died when she was 10 years old, and supposedly his daughter Anna Catharina married Menge in 1709.  

In the case of Martin, two of the three daughters who can be considered for this scenario married someone other than Menge or Kreuter. So even if it was Martin's daughter Catharina who married Menge, Martin does not appear to have had another daughter who married Kreuter. I therefore conclude that Clemens was indeed the father of Anna Catharina who married Menge, and so by extension Clemens must also be the father of the wife of Kreuter. But how can that conclusion be supported given this evidence?

In looking again at the daughters of Clemens, it happens that the death of the first daughter, Anna Elisabetha, is very likely significant. The daughter baptized as Catharina on 17 Aug 1694 was born 7 days after her older sister Anna Elisabetha died on 10 Aug 1694! In cases like this, it was the custom to name the next born child of the same gender with the name of the child who just died. There must have been a godmother with the name Catharina, thus it seems entirely probable that the daughter of Clemens baptized as Catharina in 1694 had three names: Anna Elisabetha Catharina - Anna Elisabetha for her dead sister, and Catharina for her godmother, whoever that was. This would also explain how all three of these names appear in various combinations in reference to the woman who married Kreuter.

In this scenario, not only were Anna Catharina Riess Menge and Anna Elisabetha Catharina Riess Kreuter sisters as the church documentation stated, but they were close in age and probably close emotionally, especially after both their parents died when the girls were still minors. After the sisters each married, the Menge's and the Kreuter's each served to sponsor a child from the other's family. And indeed, children from their two families ventured to the New World to the same city (Philadelphia) to the same church (St. Michaels and Zion Lutheran Church) where they continued to sponsor each other's families.  

But then we have to wonder what happened to Martin's daughter named Catharina, born in 1692? Where previously the same question applied to the daughter of Clemens named Catharina and the answer was Unknown, now the same answer applies to the daughter of Martin named Catharina. It is Unknown what became of her.

So there rests my case. I am in the process of taking a class that will help me learn to write a genealogical proof argument, so maybe I can use this as my test case in class! I'll let you know how that turns out. Meanwhile, I welcome comments and feedback.

Wednesday, October 22, 2014

The Mystery of RIEß Sisters - Part 1

The record that broke the brick wall in our Menge/Rieß research and allowed us to make the leap from Philadelpia to Södel, Germany was the following burial record from the St. Michaels and Zion German Lutheran church in Philadelphia:

3 Sep 1773, Anna Cathar. Kilmann(in); b. 23 May 1732 at Sodel?, dau.of the late Joh. Ernst Krainder? and wife Elisabeth Ries(in),? (both of a noble class). (Godparents were Ernst Menge? and wife Anna Catharina);. Immigrated in 1752 with her sister. She mar. Mr . Adolf Kilmann in 1754; had 7 children, of whom 2 sons and 4 daus. survive... (¼-page obit).

This record connected our Ernst Menge with Södel where we subsequently found a Familenbuch that recorded many Menge and Rieß families. The above burial record states that the mother of Anna Catharina Killman (Gillman) was Elisabeth Ries, and we already knew that Ernst Menge had married Anna Catharina Ries, so the thought was that the two Rieß women must have been sisters.

This thought was furthered by finding the baptism record for Anna Catharina Kreuter, born 23 May 1732 in Södel. Not only was the godmother listed as the wife of Ernst Menge, but she was further noted as being the father's sister-in-law. This seems like plenty to confirm that Elisabeth and Anna Catharina Rieß were sisters.

Except not. The previously mentioned Familienbuch states that Elisabeth was the daughter of Hans Marten Rieß and Anna Catharina was the daughter of Marten's brother, Joh. Clemens Rieß. These two brothers did not share the same wife, so how could these two women share the same parents and thus be siblings? More digging has been required.

What I have found is a wide inconsistency in the names associated with the mother of Anna Catharina Kreuter. All of these records supposedly point to the same person:
  1. Södel Familenbuch.  This sources lists Hans Marten Riess as having TWO daughters named Anna Elisabeth. First AE, born 1685, married Joh. Ernst Klein in 1705. Second AE, born 1692, married JEC Kreuter in 1714. I suspect the Familenbuch is incorrect about the name of the second AE, and I plan to send an inquiry to the book's author about the source of this information.
  2. Baptism record.  On 17 Apr 1692, Martin Riess christened a daughter named Catharina.
  3. Marriage record.  The marriage record for JEC Kreuter lists the name of the bride as Elisabetha Catharina.  It should be noted that this record does not give any indication as to the bride's family of origin.
  4. Death record.  On 23 Nov 1749, the widow of JEC Kreuter died. Her name is listed as Anna Elisabeth, and her occupation is listed as a midwife.
  5. Baptism record of AC Kreuter lists the godmother as the wife of Ernst Menge, and the sister-in-law of JEC Kreuter.  While this record does not list the mother's name, we know that Ernst Menge married Anna Catharina Riess, thus the child was given the name Anna Catharina. This record furthermore appears to establish the wives of JEC Kreuter and Ernst Menge as sisters.
  6. Obituary of AC Kreuter Gillman in PHL lists her mother as Elisabeth Riessin.
It is entirely worth noting that there was another girl born in Södel on 5 April 1692, named Anna Catharina Elisabetha. If you visit familysearch.org, you will see that they associated the surname Ries with this child. However, in looking at the original church record, there is mention of the wife and the daughter of the then mayor (Schultheiß) of Södel, Johannes Rieß.  The second wife of Johannes Rieß was named Elisabetha, and the only daughters of Herr Rieß had from his previous marriage who might still have been alive at this time were named Anna Margretha and Ursula. With that in mind, I consulted with the author of the Familienbuch to assist in the transcription and translation of the baptism record of the girl born 5 April 1692. Essentially, the girl was the child of a foreign soldier and his wife had the child in transit. Because there were no godparents for the child in Södel, the wife of the Södel mayor (Johannes Rieß), as well as his daughter stood in to sponsor the child for baptism. So the bottom line appears to be that the child born 5 Apr 1692 was apparently not a Rieß child, and thus was probably NOT the future wife of Joh. Ernst Christian Kreuter nor the sister of Anna Catharina Rieß.

So where to go next with this mystery? I have a theory, so stay tuned for an update on this topic.

(Note: in order to help search matching, I include the following spellings in this article: Ries, Riess, Kreider, Sodel, Soedel)

SPELLINGS: Männge - Menge - Mann

I thought I would share part of an email from our relation in Germany.  She wrote:

The name "Menge" may be the Diminutiv of "Mann". In dialect folk may call "menge" a little Mann. In plattdütsch it is "Männke", in Hochdeutsch it is "Männchen". In Bacharach/Rhein my forefathers in church records were written "Männge", so you can see they were thinking of "Männchen".

What is wonderful about this explanation is that in the old Philadelphia church records, we did find occurrences of the spelling "Männchen" or other spellings very close to this. Especially since this spelling varies significantly from "Menge", I always felt somewhat nervous about whether the records we found really do apply to our family. Now those doubts are gone.  Amen.

Divergence

I've been very excited lately to discover other destinations where our Menge and Rieß relations from Södel departed to. I'll include here some brief family history summary to show context.

Balthasar Menge (1647-1715) and his wife Elisabetha are our oldest known relations on the Menge side.
  • Their son, Joh. Ernst Menge (1681-1760) and his wife Anna Catharina Rieß had, as we know, several children who came to America in the 1750s, at least three sons and possibly some daughters.
  • Another son, Wilhelm Menge (1671-?) had a son, Joh. Henrich Menge who emigrated to Bacharach in the Rhineland-Palatinate where he married Maria Magdalena Kümpel. I have made contact with a living descendant from this line who resides in Germany still! It's been very fun to correspond with this descendant as we have been able to share a good deal of information about our Södel roots.
On the maternal side, our oldest known relations are Johann Rieß (1620-1663) and his wife Anna Margreth.
  • Their son, Joh. Clemens Rieß (1653-1706) and his wife Anna Margreth Kleberger had a daughter, Anna Catharina, who married our Joh. Ernst Menge previously mentioned.
  • Another son, Hans Martin Rieß (1655-1703) and his wife Elisabeth Catharina Feyh had a daughter, Anna Elisabetha, who married Joh. Ernst Klein.  Their son, Joh. Philip Klein, apparently emigrated to Russia! Here is a wonderful link describing that journey. They settled in a German Lutheran colony called Frank, and again here is another link with a wonderful overview of the history of that colony.
(Note: In order to view more than two pages from the website given in the above links, you will have to register and then enter a password to continue reading. It is so worth it to take this step as I can't recommend this website enough for the quality of information it offers.)

However, let me here describe what I believe to be a mix-up in many Klein genealogies I have seen on the internet.
  • Joh. Philip Klein and Anna Elisabetha Raab had a son named Joh. Adam Klein, born 15 March 1749 in Södel. This son apparently did not travel to Russia with his parents in 1766. According to Die Familien, Chronik Södel, Band 2 by Herbert Meyer, this son emigrated to America. I did find an arrival record in Philadelphia for a Joh. Adam Klein in 1769 but have not been able to trace what happened to him.
  • There was a Joh. Adam Klein born 16 Jun 1745 in Neider-Wöllstadt, son of Johannes Klein and M. Elis. Mohr. It should be noted that Neider-Wöllstadt is close to Södel, but it is NOT the same place. This Joh. Adam Klein married Anna Maria Fischer, and there is a record of Joh. Adam Klein of Nieder-Wöllstadt going to Russia in 1766. Here is where I have found many genealogies that mistakenly state that this Joh. Adam Klein, a colonist in Frank, Russia, descends from Joh. Philip Klein of Södel.
It could still be true that the two Klein families mentioned here are related. However, based on the evidence I have seen in this particular case, I think it is correct to say that Joh. Philip Klein from Södel and Joh. Adam Klein from Nieder-Wöllstadt both arrived in Russia in 1766.

With all that said, I find it very exciting to learn more about our Södel relations who emigrated to other parts of the world.

(Note: in order to help search matching, I include the following spellings in this article:  Riess, Sodel, Soedel, Nieder-Wollstadt, Nieder-Woellstadt)

Tuesday, September 30, 2014

Happy Landing Day!

260 years ago today, a young man of about 22 years, along with two of his brothers, arrived in the port of pre-Revolution Philadelphia. He came from a region in Germany called the Wetterau, and his journey across the ocean had lasted at least seven weeks in conditions that were not the best. His name was Ernst Christian Menge, and all this time later, we can claim this man as our 5th great-grandfather. His story is an amazing one - here is a link that gives the highlights of his family's lineage in America.

First we must understand the times. Although much of Germany was then Prussia, which was ruled in the mid-1700s by Frederick the Great, Södel (the village of Ernst Menge) was never part of Prussia, according to my local contacts there. Instead the Wetterau area had been deeply effected by the previous Thirty Years War (1618-1648), which had been disastrous for Germany as various rulers tried to impose differing religions on the population. Between mercernaries who destroyed everything in their path and the plague in 1635 followed by famine, the population of Germany was reduced to half its former population of 24 million. With nearly all its resources depleted, German communities struggled to recover.  Here is a link telling the history of another village in the Wetterau which gives some good ideas of the complicated history of the area. It also shows the dress common for people in the Wetterau during that time, and so gives us some idea how our Ernst might have looked:



In the life of Ernst Menge, there were probably several other factors besides political unrest that called him to the New World. Ernst was the youngest in his family, and so he would not be included any family inheritance, although it's not clear that the family owned any land. Ernst's father was a church elder, and there is evidence that Ernst and his brothers were involved in the occupation of 'strumphmacher' or stocking makers. Ernst's mother, Anna Catharina Rieß, had just died in 1753, and at the same time there was word of life in America from his cousin, Martin Kreuter, who had gone to America in 1751 and returned to Södel to marry Susanna Louisa Bonne on 25 Apr 1754. Maybe because Martin was then returning to Philadelphia where apparently other Kreuter cousins were already living, Ernst and his two brothers Johannes and Henrich also decided to make the move.

First we must imagine the journey itself. What did the ship Edinburgh look like? Well, I've not been able to locate an image of the exact ship, but this link gives a very good approximation of what it probably looked like. Here is another image giving an idea of the Edinburgh:


The journey was, however, probably not easy. During this time period, the immigrant ships carried as many as 300 passengers. This account describes what the journey might have been like for a German immigrant to Philadelphia at that time.

And what was life like on the day of arrival?  Well, the bells in Philadelphia were a-ringing to annouce the arrival of a ship with German immigrants. After taking the oath of allegiance to England and then paying for their passage, they would have been greeted at the dock by their Kreuter family and friends.  Life in the New World was about to begin! Read more in an excellent account here.

It should be noted that Ernst Menge probably made it to America just under the wire, as nearly all immigration to America was halted during the Seven Years War. Had Ernst not left the Wetterau when he did, and considering the high cost of life in that war, it's entirely possible he might not have come to America at all, and then all the history of our family would certainly be different. But instead by the time of Ernst's arrival in Philadelphia, roughly 40% of the population of the Philadelphia colony were German peoples. Germans lived in their own communities and had their own German-language newspapers. The challenges in the New World, especially during the struggle for American independence would not be trivial. But our Menge family was part of the story that shaped a new democratic nation. This is as good a time as any to be grateful for the courage and determination of our German ancestors. Thanks to them who made such incredible journeys.

Saturday, May 17, 2014

County Lines - Michigan

I'm in the process of writing a story about our relations journey from New Jersey to Michigan, and promptly managed to get myself confused about where certain family groups actually settled.  Some bought a land patent in Oakland county, but then lived in Macomb county, and vice versa.  After much studying, it's very clear that Summers family groups lived right on the county live between Macomb and Oakland.  And the Mann's too, it would seem.  For some reason, the elder Ernest Mann settled in Washington, Macomb, Michigan while all his adult children purchased patents in Oakland county.  All the while, they were hardly 20 miles apart.  Whew!

But now I've realized even one more county line in the picture. I found several deeds in Lapeer county (Hadley) from the heirs of Samuel Axford of Macomb to various Mann members: namely George, Ernest (III), and John P. Mann. Hadley is just over 14 miles from Oxford in Oakland county where many of the Mann family lived. And just in case we think these land transactions were completely random, we should remember that Samuel Axford Jr. married Phebe Summers, daughter of Jacob Summers and Mary Hiles.